Hydrogen from sunlight and water

Posted By : Kamlesh Jolapara

hydro solar
We heard about hydrogen as a fuel could be easily generated from the solar energy. Sounds amazing! However, there was no convenient or easy solar hydrogen system available in the world from which we can harvest hydrogen from the solar energy directly. The Ideal solar hydrogen system should be such that it creates hydrogen easily from the abundant available material with minimum cost and sufficiently reliable to power cars and homes in future.
 
New invention
I think our search for such kind of system is over; the journal ‘Science’ has published a new way to produce hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water, the method was discovered in Michael Gratzel’s laboratory at Ecole Polytechique Federale Lausanne in Switzerland. Researchers have created a way to use abundantly materials to build a device that uses solar energy and water to make hydrogen.  By combining a pair of solar cells made with a mineral called perovskite and low cost electrodes, scientists have obtained 12.3 per cent conversion efficiency from solar energy to hydrogen, a record using earth-abundant materials as opposed to rare materials. The race is on to optimize solar energy’s performance. More efficient silicon photo-voltaic panels, dye-sensitized solar cells, concentrated cells and thermodynamic solar panel all pursue the same goal: to produce a maximum amount of electrons from sunlight.
 
How hydrogen is made
At the Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces at EPFL, led by Michael Gratzel, where scientists recently invented dye solar cells that mimic photosynthesis in plants, they have also developed methods for generating fuels through solar water splitting. To do this, they either use photo electrochemical cells that directly split water into hydrogen and oxygen when exposed to sunlight, or they combine electricity-generating cells with and electrolyser that separates the water molecules. By using the latter technique, Gratzel’s student Jingshan Luo and his colleagues were able to convert water into hydrogen using energy diffused by the sun on perovskite absorbers – a compound that can be obtained in the laboratory from common materials, such as those used in conventional car batteries, eliminating the need for rare-earth metals in the production of usable hydrogen fuel.
 
Store hydrogen in a bottle
This high efficiency provides stiff competition for other tech used to convert solar energy and has several advantages over other methods. “Both the perovskite used in the cells and the nickel and iron catalysts making up the electrodes require resources that are abundant on Earth and that are also cheap,” explained Jingshan Luo. “However, our electrodes work just as well as the expensive platinum based models customarily used.” On the other hand, the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen makes its storage possible, which addresses one of the biggest disadvantages faced by renewable electricity – the requirement to use it at the time it is produced. Once you have hydrogen, you store it in a bottle and you can do with it whatever you want to, whenever you want it. Such a gas can be burned – in a boiler or engine – releasing only water vapour. It can also pass into a fuel cell to generate electricity on demand.
 
Powerful cells for future
These high efficiency values are based on a characteristic of perovskite cells: their ability to generate an open circuit voltage greater than 1V (silicon cells stop at 0.7V). A voltage of 1.7V or more is required for water electrolysis to occur and to obtain exploitable gases. To get these numbers, three or more silicon cells are needed, whereas just two perovskite cells are enough. As a result, there is more efficiency with respect to the surface of the light absorbers required. This new invention requires more focus on further development to get it more suitable for commercial applications.

Hydrogen from sunlight and water

 
We heard about hydrogen as a fuel could be easily generated from the solar energy. Sounds amazing! However, there was no convenient or easy solar hydrogen system available in the world from which we can harvest hydrogen from the solar energy directly. The Ideal solar hydrogen system should be such that it creates hydrogen easily from the abundant available material with minimum cost and sufficiently reliable to power cars and homes in future.
New invention
I think our search for such kind of system is over; the journal ‘Science’ has published a new way to produce hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water, the method was discovered in Michael Gratzel’s laboratory at Ecole Polytechique Federale Lausanne in Switzerland. Researchers have created a way to use abundantly materials to build a device that uses solar energy and water to make hydrogen.  By combining a pair of solar cells made with a mineral called perovskite and low cost electrodes, scientists have obtained 12.3 per cent conversion efficiency from solar energy to hydrogen, a record using earth-abundant materials as opposed to rare materials. The race is on to optimize solar energy’s performance. More efficient silicon photo-voltaic panels, dye-sensitized solar cells, concentrated cells and thermodynamic solar panel all pursue the same goal: to produce a maximum amount of electrons from sunlight.
How hydrogen is made
At the Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces at EPFL, led by Michael Gratzel, where scientists recently invented dye solar cells that mimic photosynthesis in plants, they have also developed methods for generating fuels through solar water splitting. To do this, they either use photo electrochemical cells that directly split water into hydrogen and oxygen when exposed to sunlight, or they combine electricity-generating cells with and electrolyser that separates the water molecules. By using the latter technique, Gratzel’s student Jingshan Luo and his colleagues were able to convert water into hydrogen using energy diffused by the sun on perovskite absorbers – a compound that can be obtained in the laboratory from common materials, such as those used in conventional car batteries, eliminating the need for rare-earth metals in the production of usable hydrogen fuel.
Hydrogen from solar
Store hydrogen in a bottle
This high efficiency provides stiff competition for other tech used to convert solar energy and has several advantages over other methods. “Both the perovskite used in the cells and the nickel and iron catalysts making up the electrodes require resources that are abundant on Earth and that are also cheap,” explained Jingshan Luo. “However, our electrodes work just as well as the expensive platinum based models customarily used.” On the other hand, the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen makes its storage possible, which addresses one of the biggest disadvantages faced by renewable electricity – the requirement to use it at the time it is produced. Once you have hydrogen, you store it in a bottle and you can do with it whatever you want to, whenever you want it. Such a gas can be burned – in a boiler or engine – releasing only water vapour. It can also pass into a fuel cell to generate electricity on demand.
Powerful cells for future
These high efficiency values are based on a characteristic of perovskite cells: their ability to generate an open circuit voltage greater than 1V (silicon cells stop at 0.7V). A voltage of 1.7V or more is required for water electrolysis to occur and to obtain exploitable gases. To get these numbers, three or more silicon cells are needed, whereas just two perovskite cells are enough. As a result, there is more efficiency with respect to the surface of the light absorbers required. This new invention requires more focus on further development to get it more suitable for commercial applications.
- See more at: http://futureentech.blogspot.in/2014/10/hydrogen-from-sunlight-and-water.html#sthash.5vaJ2sZO.dpuf

Hydrogen from sunlight and water

 
We heard about hydrogen as a fuel could be easily generated from the solar energy. Sounds amazing! However, there was no convenient or easy solar hydrogen system available in the world from which we can harvest hydrogen from the solar energy directly. The Ideal solar hydrogen system should be such that it creates hydrogen easily from the abundant available material with minimum cost and sufficiently reliable to power cars and homes in future.
New invention
I think our search for such kind of system is over; the journal ‘Science’ has published a new way to produce hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water, the method was discovered in Michael Gratzel’s laboratory at Ecole Polytechique Federale Lausanne in Switzerland. Researchers have created a way to use abundantly materials to build a device that uses solar energy and water to make hydrogen.  By combining a pair of solar cells made with a mineral called perovskite and low cost electrodes, scientists have obtained 12.3 per cent conversion efficiency from solar energy to hydrogen, a record using earth-abundant materials as opposed to rare materials. The race is on to optimize solar energy’s performance. More efficient silicon photo-voltaic panels, dye-sensitized solar cells, concentrated cells and thermodynamic solar panel all pursue the same goal: to produce a maximum amount of electrons from sunlight.
How hydrogen is made
At the Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces at EPFL, led by Michael Gratzel, where scientists recently invented dye solar cells that mimic photosynthesis in plants, they have also developed methods for generating fuels through solar water splitting. To do this, they either use photo electrochemical cells that directly split water into hydrogen and oxygen when exposed to sunlight, or they combine electricity-generating cells with and electrolyser that separates the water molecules. By using the latter technique, Gratzel’s student Jingshan Luo and his colleagues were able to convert water into hydrogen using energy diffused by the sun on perovskite absorbers – a compound that can be obtained in the laboratory from common materials, such as those used in conventional car batteries, eliminating the need for rare-earth metals in the production of usable hydrogen fuel.
Hydrogen from solar
Store hydrogen in a bottle
This high efficiency provides stiff competition for other tech used to convert solar energy and has several advantages over other methods. “Both the perovskite used in the cells and the nickel and iron catalysts making up the electrodes require resources that are abundant on Earth and that are also cheap,” explained Jingshan Luo. “However, our electrodes work just as well as the expensive platinum based models customarily used.” On the other hand, the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen makes its storage possible, which addresses one of the biggest disadvantages faced by renewable electricity – the requirement to use it at the time it is produced. Once you have hydrogen, you store it in a bottle and you can do with it whatever you want to, whenever you want it. Such a gas can be burned – in a boiler or engine – releasing only water vapour. It can also pass into a fuel cell to generate electricity on demand.
Powerful cells for future
These high efficiency values are based on a characteristic of perovskite cells: their ability to generate an open circuit voltage greater than 1V (silicon cells stop at 0.7V). A voltage of 1.7V or more is required for water electrolysis to occur and to obtain exploitable gases. To get these numbers, three or more silicon cells are needed, whereas just two perovskite cells are enough. As a result, there is more efficiency with respect to the surface of the light absorbers required. This new invention requires more focus on further development to get it more suitable for commercial applications.
- See more at: http://futureentech.blogspot.in/2014/10/hydrogen-from-sunlight-and-water.html#sthash.5vaJ2sZO.dpuf

Hydrogen from sunlight and water

 
We heard about hydrogen as a fuel could be easily generated from the solar energy. Sounds amazing! However, there was no convenient or easy solar hydrogen system available in the world from which we can harvest hydrogen from the solar energy directly. The Ideal solar hydrogen system should be such that it creates hydrogen easily from the abundant available material with minimum cost and sufficiently reliable to power cars and homes in future.
New invention
I think our search for such kind of system is over; the journal ‘Science’ has published a new way to produce hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water, the method was discovered in Michael Gratzel’s laboratory at Ecole Polytechique Federale Lausanne in Switzerland. Researchers have created a way to use abundantly materials to build a device that uses solar energy and water to make hydrogen.  By combining a pair of solar cells made with a mineral called perovskite and low cost electrodes, scientists have obtained 12.3 per cent conversion efficiency from solar energy to hydrogen, a record using earth-abundant materials as opposed to rare materials. The race is on to optimize solar energy’s performance. More efficient silicon photo-voltaic panels, dye-sensitized solar cells, concentrated cells and thermodynamic solar panel all pursue the same goal: to produce a maximum amount of electrons from sunlight.
How hydrogen is made
At the Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces at EPFL, led by Michael Gratzel, where scientists recently invented dye solar cells that mimic photosynthesis in plants, they have also developed methods for generating fuels through solar water splitting. To do this, they either use photo electrochemical cells that directly split water into hydrogen and oxygen when exposed to sunlight, or they combine electricity-generating cells with and electrolyser that separates the water molecules. By using the latter technique, Gratzel’s student Jingshan Luo and his colleagues were able to convert water into hydrogen using energy diffused by the sun on perovskite absorbers – a compound that can be obtained in the laboratory from common materials, such as those used in conventional car batteries, eliminating the need for rare-earth metals in the production of usable hydrogen fuel.
Hydrogen from solar
Store hydrogen in a bottle
This high efficiency provides stiff competition for other tech used to convert solar energy and has several advantages over other methods. “Both the perovskite used in the cells and the nickel and iron catalysts making up the electrodes require resources that are abundant on Earth and that are also cheap,” explained Jingshan Luo. “However, our electrodes work just as well as the expensive platinum based models customarily used.” On the other hand, the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen makes its storage possible, which addresses one of the biggest disadvantages faced by renewable electricity – the requirement to use it at the time it is produced. Once you have hydrogen, you store it in a bottle and you can do with it whatever you want to, whenever you want it. Such a gas can be burned – in a boiler or engine – releasing only water vapour. It can also pass into a fuel cell to generate electricity on demand.
Powerful cells for future
These high efficiency values are based on a characteristic of perovskite cells: their ability to generate an open circuit voltage greater than 1V (silicon cells stop at 0.7V). A voltage of 1.7V or more is required for water electrolysis to occur and to obtain exploitable gases. To get these numbers, three or more silicon cells are needed, whereas just two perovskite cells are enough. As a result, there is more efficiency with respect to the surface of the light absorbers required. This new invention requires more focus on further development to get it more suitable for commercial applications.
- See more at: http://futureentech.blogspot.in/2014/10/hydrogen-from-sunlight-and-water.html#sthash.5vaJ2sZO.dpuf

Hydrogen from sunlight and water

 
We heard about hydrogen as a fuel could be easily generated from the solar energy. Sounds amazing! However, there was no convenient or easy solar hydrogen system available in the world from which we can harvest hydrogen from the solar energy directly. The Ideal solar hydrogen system should be such that it creates hydrogen easily from the abundant available material with minimum cost and sufficiently reliable to power cars and homes in future.
New invention
I think our search for such kind of system is over; the journal ‘Science’ has published a new way to produce hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water, the method was discovered in Michael Gratzel’s laboratory at Ecole Polytechique Federale Lausanne in Switzerland. Researchers have created a way to use abundantly materials to build a device that uses solar energy and water to make hydrogen.  By combining a pair of solar cells made with a mineral called perovskite and low cost electrodes, scientists have obtained 12.3 per cent conversion efficiency from solar energy to hydrogen, a record using earth-abundant materials as opposed to rare materials. The race is on to optimize solar energy’s performance. More efficient silicon photo-voltaic panels, dye-sensitized solar cells, concentrated cells and thermodynamic solar panel all pursue the same goal: to produce a maximum amount of electrons from sunlight.
How hydrogen is made
At the Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces at EPFL, led by Michael Gratzel, where scientists recently invented dye solar cells that mimic photosynthesis in plants, they have also developed methods for generating fuels through solar water splitting. To do this, they either use photo electrochemical cells that directly split water into hydrogen and oxygen when exposed to sunlight, or they combine electricity-generating cells with and electrolyser that separates the water molecules. By using the latter technique, Gratzel’s student Jingshan Luo and his colleagues were able to convert water into hydrogen using energy diffused by the sun on perovskite absorbers – a compound that can be obtained in the laboratory from common materials, such as those used in conventional car batteries, eliminating the need for rare-earth metals in the production of usable hydrogen fuel.
Hydrogen from solar
Store hydrogen in a bottle
This high efficiency provides stiff competition for other tech used to convert solar energy and has several advantages over other methods. “Both the perovskite used in the cells and the nickel and iron catalysts making up the electrodes require resources that are abundant on Earth and that are also cheap,” explained Jingshan Luo. “However, our electrodes work just as well as the expensive platinum based models customarily used.” On the other hand, the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen makes its storage possible, which addresses one of the biggest disadvantages faced by renewable electricity – the requirement to use it at the time it is produced. Once you have hydrogen, you store it in a bottle and you can do with it whatever you want to, whenever you want it. Such a gas can be burned – in a boiler or engine – releasing only water vapour. It can also pass into a fuel cell to generate electricity on demand.
Powerful cells for future
These high efficiency values are based on a characteristic of perovskite cells: their ability to generate an open circuit voltage greater than 1V (silicon cells stop at 0.7V). A voltage of 1.7V or more is required for water electrolysis to occur and to obtain exploitable gases. To get these numbers, three or more silicon cells are needed, whereas just two perovskite cells are enough. As a result, there is more efficiency with respect to the surface of the light absorbers required. This new invention requires more focus on further development to get it more suitable for commercial applications.
- See more at: http://futureentech.blogspot.in/2014/10/hydrogen-from-sunlight-and-water.html#sthash.5vaJ2sZO.dpuf

U.S. Used More Energy in 2013 Than the Year Before, But Efficiency Is Up Too

Posted by Pete Danko

more energy usedEnergy use increased in the United States in 2013 as a fourth consecutive year of economic growth exerted its influence, but the longer-term trend shows the country operating with greater efficiency while also revealing the small but growing role of renewable sources like solar and wind.

The font for these insights is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and its “energy flow chart,” an annual tally of U.S. energy consumption that colorfully connects energy sources with their end uses in the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors. There’s a hefty “rejected energy” component, as well, for energy that is consumed but not put to use, like waste heat. The recently released 2013 chart showed energy use at 97.4 quadrillion British thermal units, an increase of 2.3 quads over 2012.

But don’t worry – this isn’t evidence that all those energy efficient light bulbs and LEED-certified buildings are for naught. Energy use was still down significantly from the all-time U.S. record of 101.5 quads established in 2007, just before the economy crashed – even though the economy is now about 6 percent larger than it was in 2007, as measured by real gross domestic product.

“We’re seeing two trends fighting each other,” said A.J. Simon, group leader for energy at the California lab. “Energy use is notching its way back up as the economy grows, but generally people are doing more to be efficient in how they use energy.”

The transportation sector is a good example of this: Compared to 2007, people are using public transportation more and driving less, and when they do drive, they’re doing so in cars and trucks that, on average, deliver improved fuel efficiency.

As a result, although petroleum use inched up a bit last year, its use in the transportation sector was down from 27.71 quads in 2007 to 24.7 in 2013 (biofuels have picked up some of the slack, doubling their contribution in the same period, to 1.24 quads for transportation).

Simon noted that a complex set of factors determine how much and what mix of energy is used in a year, with weather being an especially important wild card. For instance, in 2013, winter cold snaps in February and March, and then again in December, drove up the use of natural gas for home heating. That additional demand for natural gas pushed prices higher, which led to more coal being used for electricity generation in 2013 – and that, in turn, largely explained the uptick in carbon dioxide emissions that the lab noted in a companion carbon flow chart.

Still, it was just a small bump up for coal, from 17.6 to 18 quads. Peering back a decade, coal was the source of 22.9 quads of energy use in 2003. Natural gas has surged since then, of course, although strictly on a percentage basis wind power has it beat. The thickness of the lines on the energy flow chart are not precisely scaled to the amount of energy drawn from a particular source, but attempt to give a reasonable picture. Simon remembers a time not long ago when the wind line was drawn as narrowly as possible, so minuscule was its contribution.

“It used to be one pixel,” he said, “but it’s not one pixel anymore,” with wind’s contribution rising from 0.11 quads in 2003 to 1.6 in 2013, a 1,355 percent increase.

Solar’s yellow line on the energy flow chart is still barely visible, but at the rate installations are growing, it too might take on new dimensions before long. In 2003, solar was at 0.06 quads; in 2013, it had grown to more than five times that, at 0.32, boosted by a 36 percent surge from 2012 to 2013.

Another Reason to Promote Clean Energy in Developing Countries

by Antonio Pasolini

clean energyBillions of people live without access to modern electricity services and clean energy could lift them out of the economic exclusion zone, improve their education and make their lives generally better. It can also save some lives, literally.

Of all the reasons to advocate clean energy, this may be the most surprising one. The Legal Human Rights Centre (LHRC) recently reported that over 3,000 people were lynched in Tanzania by neighbors who thought they were witches.

And what does that have to do with clean energy, you may be asking yourself? Well, it so happens that many of these victims are old women who develop red eyes, considered to be a sign of witchcraft, for burning cow dung for fuel as a substitute for firewood.

It is hard to believe that this sort of thing happens at this day and age. Apparently the women often are killed shortly after the death of a relative, which they are blamed for.

 

Albinos are often murdered as people believe that making potions from their body parts can attract wealth. This group is also a victim of rape as some people believe that intercourse with them can cure them of AIDS. They believe albinos are cursed and simply disappear instead of dying.

This story highlights how education and access to modern, clean technology ramifies into areas that we would never imagine at first. Portable solar-powered solutions could help people like those women in Tanzania to replace dirty fuel with clean energy. Luckily some innovators have been working to develop portable solar solutions for people in African countries, such as Eight19 and its pay-as-you-go solution . Let’s hope that the more people in Africa get access to solar, the fewer casualties there will be due to a case of red eyes.